Σάββατο, 27 Μαΐου 2017

The “Weakest Link” as an Indicator of Cognitive Vulnerability Differentially Predicts Symptom Dimensions of Anxiety in Adolescents in China

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Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
Source:Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Author(s): Junyi Wang, Danyang Wang, Lixia Cui, Chad M. McWhinnie, Li Wang, Jing Xiao
This multiwave longitudinal study examined the cognitive vulnerability-stress component of hopelessness theory to differentially predict symptom dimensions of anxiety using a “weakest link” approach in a sample of adolescents from Hunan Province, China. Baseline and 6-month follow-up data were obtained from 553 middle-school students. During an initial assessment, participants completed measures of assessing their weakest links, anxious symptoms, and the occurrence of stress. Participants subsequently completed measures assessing stress, and anxious symptoms one a month for six months. Higher weakest link scores were associated with greater increases in the harm avoidance and separation anxiety/panic dimensions, but not the physical or social anxiety dimension, of anxious symptoms following stress in Chinese adolescents. These results support the applicability of the “weakest link” approach, derived from hopelessness theory, in Chinese adolescents. Weakest link scores as cognitive vulnerability factors may play a role in the development of anxious symptoms, especially in the cognitive dimensions (e.g., harm avoidance and separation anxiety/panic). Our findings also have potential value in explaining the effectiveness of cognitive relevant therapy in treating the cognitive dimensions of anxious symptoms.



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The Network Model of Delirium

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Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
Source:Medical Hypotheses
Author(s): James W.S. Young
The coordinated function of brain networks underlies consciousness, attention and reality testing, all of which are impaired in delirium. The default-mode network, salience network, frontoparietal control network and dorsal attention network are brain networks with integral roles in the maintenance and modulation of the aforementioned functions. Multiple lines of evidence point to their dysfunction in delirium. The convergence of neurotransmitter changes, neuroendocrine and inflammatory stressors on brain networks disrupts bottom-up and top-down attentional control. Neuroimaging and neuroanatomy correlates are potentially consistent with this hypothesis. Overall, this model appears to have significant utility in connecting the seemingly disparate precipitants of delirium whilst accounting for the clinical manifestations of the syndrome.



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Infections Caused by Resistant Organisms: Could Organic Arsenic Compounds be an Effective Treatment?

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Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
Source:Medical Hypotheses
Author(s): Victor D. Warner, Albert H. Soloway
Without question one of the most important medicinal chemistry discoveries of the 20th century was made by Paul Ehrlich and his colleagues, chemist, Alfred Bertheim and bacteriologist, Sahachiro Hata. They ushered in the age of targeted chemotherapy in 1910 with the discovery of the anti-syphilitic organic arsenic agent, arsphenamine or Salvarsan (also known as 606). It was the clinical compound of choice for treating syphilis until penicillin and other antibiotics were introduced clinically in the 1940s. Yet now, more than 100 years after its discovery, the precise biochemical mechanism by which this compound eliminates the syphilis spirochete in vivo from humans and animals remains unknown.Other organic arsenic compounds such as melarsoprol and roxarson have been used to treat parasitic infections. More recently, arsenic trioxide has been shown effective in producing remissions and possibly cures in a high percentage of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, the exact biochemical mechanism by which this clinical result is manifested remains to be determined.The purpose of this publication is to propose a possible mechanism, by which these apparently diverse arsenic compounds function to produce their clinical results and to suggest their potential for the treatment of infections caused by resistant organisms.



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On the chemotherapeutic agents localization in tissue by means of snake venoms

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Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
Source:Medical Hypotheses
Author(s): Oleksii S. Rukhlenko, Georgy Th. Guria, Andrey I. Vorobiev
The efficiency of anti-tumour drug strongly depends on its dose. Higher drug doses and exposure times usually result in better treatment. It is why the implementation of high-dose treatment is always attractive. However, most of the drug delivery techniques meet essential limitations. In isolated regional perfusion a tumour can be exposed to high-dose therapeutic influence but the target organ may be isolated from the rest of circulatory system only for a relatively short period of time. During systemic injection of anti-tumour agents dose limitations are dictated by side toxicity danger. Viperidae venoms are known to cause local stagnation of blood flow and blood-tissue exchange processes in the place of snakebite. In present paper we suggest to use Viperidae snake venoms in addition to anti-tumour drugs for regional anti-cancer therapy. We suppose that Viperidae venoms will assist in drug localization. We state that their usage will help in high-dosage therapy implementation.



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Comparison of visual acuity, refractive outcomes, and satisfaction between LASIK performed with a microkeratome and a femto laser

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Comprehensive review of visual defects reported with topiramate

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Refractive predictability in eyes with intraocular gas tamponade – results of a prospective controlled clinical trial

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