Δευτέρα, 24 Απριλίου 2017

Should Prostate Cancer Screening Start Earlier for Black Men?

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MONDAY, April 24, 2017 -- With black men at higher risk of developing -- and dying from -- prostate cancer, some researchers believe these men merit their own race-based screening guidelines. It's known that incidence of prostate cancer is 60...

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In America's Poorest Communities, a Greater Risk of Child Abuse Deaths

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MONDAY, April 24, 2017 -- Growing up in a poor family is a well-known risk factor for child abuse, but a new analysis suggests it may also raise a young child's chances of dying from that abuse. More than 11,000 children, from newborn to age 4, died...

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Health Tip: Don't Let Boredom Thwart Your Workout

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-- It's difficult to keep exercising day after day if you're bored with the same routine. But you can mix it up so you look forward to your workout each day. The American Council on Exercise recommends: Figure out what's boring you. Maybe switch up...

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Health Tip: Caring for Pets

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-- If there's an emergency and you need to evacuate your home, your pets must go too. So be prepared. The American Red Cross recommends: Find out which hotels would accept pets. Prepare an emergency contact list of friends, family members and...

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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 880: Role of RHEB in Regulating Differentiation Fate of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cartilage and Bone Regeneration

Advances in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cell replacement therapies are promising approaches to treat cartilage and bone defects since substantial differentiation capacities of MSCs match the demands of tissue regeneration. Our understanding of the dynamic process requiring indispensable differentiation of MSCs remains limited. Herein, we describe the role of RHEB (Ras homolog enriched in brain) regulating gene signature for differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. RHEB-overexpression increases the proliferation of the ASCs. RHEB enhances the chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs in 3D culture via upregulation of SOX9 with concomitant increase in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and type II collagen (COL2). RHEB increases the osteogenesis via upregulation of runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) with an increase in the calcium and phosphate contents. RHEB also increases the expression of osteogenic markers, osteonectin and osteopontin. RHEB knockdown ASCs were incapable of expressing sufficient SRY (Sex determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9) and RUNX2, and therefore had decreased chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. RHEB-overexpression impaired ASCs differentiation into adipogenic lineage, through downregulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ). Conversely, RHEB knockdown abolished the negative regulation of adipogenesis. We demonstrate that RHEB is a novel regulator, with a critical role in ASCs lineage determination, and RHEB-modulated ASCs may be useful as a cell therapy for cartilage and bone defect treatments.

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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 893: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Mediated Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Induced-Neurotoxicity via Epigenetics Regulation in SK-N-SH Cells

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a new kind of persistent organic pollutant, is widely distributed in the environment and exists in various organisms, where it is also a neurotoxic compound. However, the potential mechanism of its neurotoxicity is still unclear. To examine the role of epigenetics in the neurotoxicity induced by PFOS, SK-N-SH cells were treated with different concentrations of PFOS or control medium (0.1% DMSO) for 48 h. The mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), microRNA-16, microRNA-22, and microRNA-30a-5p were detected by Quantitative PCR (QPCR). Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to measure the protein levels of BDNF, and a western blot was applied to analyze the protein levels of DNMTs. Bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) was used to detect the methylation status of the BDNF promoter I and IV. Results of MTT assays indicated that treatment with PFOS could lead to a significant decrease of cell viability, and the treated cells became shrunk. In addition, PFOS exposure decreased the expression of BDNF at mRNA and protein levels, increased the expression of microRNA-16, microRNA-22, microRNA-30a-5p, and decreased the expression of DNMT1 at mRNA and protein levels, but increased the expression of DNMT3b at mRNA and protein levels. Our results also demonstrate that PFOS exposure changes the methylation status of BDNF promoter I and IV. The findings of the present study suggest that methylation regulation of BDNF gene promoter and increases of BDNF-related-microRNA might underlie the mechanisms of PFOS-induced neurotoxicity.

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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 897: Health Effects of Psidium guajava L. Leaves: An Overview of the Last Decade

Today, there is increasing interest in discovering new bioactive compounds derived from ethnomedicine. Preparations of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves have traditionally been used to manage several diseases. The pharmacological research in vitro as well as in vivo has been widely used to demonstrate the potential of the extracts from the leaves for the co-treatment of different ailments with high prevalence worldwide, upholding the traditional medicine in cases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and parasitic infections. Moreover, the biological activity has been attributed to the bioactive composition of the leaves, to some specific phytochemical subclasses, or even to individual compounds. Phenolic compounds in guava leaves have been credited with regulating blood-glucose levels. Thus, the aim of the present review was to compile results from in vitro and in vivo studies carried out with guava leaves over the last decade, relating the effects to their clinical applications in order to focus further research for finding individual bioactive compounds. Some food applications (guava tea and supplementary feed for aquaculture) and some clinical, in vitro, and in vivo outcomes are also included.

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